A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents

When using the taxonomy, please cite as Feine, J., Gnewuch U., Morana S. and Maedche A. (2019): “A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. To read the paper, please click here.


Bearing in mind the ongoing hype about conversational agents associated with the rapid technological improvements and the excellent business opportunities, it is of utmost importance to incorporate all research knowledge into the development to create a successful user experience. This comprises both functional capabilities of a conversational agent's dialog system as well as an agent's specific design characteristics and features.

Our research team analyzed the underlying concepts of a cconversational agent's design features and integrated them into a taxonomy. The taxonomy distinguishes social cues rested upon commonalities found in the means of creating them. This results in four social cue categories, i.e., the verbal, visual, auditory and invisible cues, which are based on a classical classification of the human communication system. Then we further subdevided them into ten subcategories.