A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents

When using the taxonomy, please cite as Feine, J., Gnewuch U., Morana S. and Maedche A. (2019): “A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. To read the paper, please click here.

Social cue: Color of agent
Communication system: Visual
Cue category: Appearance
Cue Description
The overall color of the appearance of the CA.
Cue example
White, black, or pink color of CA.
Cue impact
User interacting with agent of same-ethnicity perceive the agent to be more attractive, trustworthy, persuasive, and intelligent (Nass, Moon 2000), and more preferable (Cowell, Stanney 2005). Also, human behavior towards agent is consistent with real world skin-tone bias (Rossen et al. 2008; Brahnam, Angeli 2012; Wu et al. 2017). Color of agent can further indicate the gender of the agent (Trovato et al. 2015). Also, the color of the cloth impacts the perceived personality type (Wu et al. 2017).
Reference List
1. Trovato, G., Ramos, J. G., Azevedo, H., Moroni, A., Magossi, S., & Ishii, H., et al. (Eds.). 2015. “Olá, my name is Ana”: A study on Brazilians interacting with a receptionist robot. 2015 International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR).
2. Brahnam, S., & Angeli, A. de (2012). Gender affordances of conversational agents. INTERACTING WITH COMPUTERS (24:3), pp. 139-153.
3. Cowell, A. J., & Stanney, K. M. (2005). Manipulation of non-verbal interaction style and demographic embodiment to increase anthropomorphic computer character credibility. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES (62:2), pp. 281-306.
4. Rossen, B., Johnsen, K., Deladisma, A., Lind, S., & Lok, B. (2008). Virtual Humans Elicit Skin-Tone Bias Consistent with Real-World Skin-Tone Biases. In H. Prendinger, J. Lester, & M. Ishizuka (Eds.), Intelligent Virtual Agents: 8th International Conference, IVA 2008, Tokyo, Japan, September 1-3, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 237-244.
5. Nass, C., & Moon, Y. (2000). Machines and Mindlessness: Social Responses to Computers. Journal of Social Issues (56:1), pp. 81.
6. Wu, Z., Lin, T., Xu, H., & Tang, N. (2017). Predicting personality associations evoked by multicolored appearance of virtual agents: An exploratory study. Color Research & Application (42:6), pp. 753-763.
7. Qiu, L. and I. Benbasat (2010). A study of demographic embodiments of product recommendation agents in electronic commerce International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 68 (10), 669688.