A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents

When using the taxonomy, please cite as Feine, J., Gnewuch U., Morana S. and Maedche A. (2019): “A Taxonomy of Social Cues for Conversational Agents” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. To read the paper, please click here.

Social cue: Facial feature
Communication system: Visual
Cue category: Appearance
Cue Description
The static and non-changing characteristics of the CA’s face.
Cue example
Static smile of CA.
Cue impact
Static emotional expressions are similar perceived by young agent users and even stronger for old agent users (Beer et al. 2015). Other show, that static smiling did not increase senses of social presence and personalization (Verhagen et al. 2014).
Reference List
1. Verhagen, T., van Nes, J., Feldberg, F., & van Dolen, W. (2014). Virtual Customer Service Agents: Using Social Presence and Personalization to Shape Online Service Encounters. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (19:3), pp. 529-545.
2. Beer, J. M., Smarr, C.-A., Fisk, A. D., & Rogers, W. A. (2015). Younger and older users’ recognition of virtual agent facial expressions. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES (75, pp. 1-20.
3. Cassell, J. and K. R. Thorisson (1999). ?The power of a nod and a glance: Envelope vs. emotional feedback in animated conversational agents? Applied Artificial intelligence 13 (4-5), 519?538.
4. Rosis, F. de, C. Pelachaud, I. Poggi, V. Carofiglio and B. de Carolis (2003). ?From Greta's mind to her face: modelling the dynamics of affective states in a conversational embodied agent? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59 (1-2), 81?118.
5. Bickmore, T. and J. Cassell (2005). Social Dialogue with Embodied Conversational Agents. In J. C. J. Kuppevelt, N. O. Bernsen and L. Dybkjær (eds.) Advances in Natural Multimodal Dialogue Systems, pp. 23?54. Dordrecht: Springer.
6. Ryokai, K., C. Vaucelle and J. Cassell (2003). Virtual peers as partners in storytelling and literacy learning Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 19 (2), 195?208.
7. Carolis, B. de, C. Pelachaud, I. Poggi and M. Steedman (2004). APML, a Markup Language for Believable Behavior Generation. In H. Prendinger and M. Ishizuka (eds.) Life-Like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions, and Applications, pp. 65?85. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
8. Bailenson, J. N. and N. Yee (2005). Digital chameleons. Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures in immersive virtual environments Psychological science 16 (10), 814?819.